In 2001, a follow-up to the previous meeting (COP6-bis) took place in Bonn[88], where the necessary decisions were taken. After some concessions, the proponents of the protocol (led by the European Union) managed to get the approval of Japan and Russia by allowing greater use of carbon sinks. The Kyoto Protocol recognized that developed countries are primarily responsible for the current high greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere due to more than 150 years of industrial activity. As a result, the protocol has imposed a heavier burden on industrialized countries than on less developed countries. In 2016, when the Paris Climate Agreement came into force, the United States was one of the main drivers of the agreement, and President Obama hailed it as a «tribute to American leadership.» As a presidential candidate at the time, Donald Trump criticized the deal as a bad deal for the American people and promised to withdraw the United States if elected. Emission limit values do not include emissions from international aviation and shipping. [37] Although Belarus and Turkey are listed in Annex I to the Convention, they do not have emission targets because they were not Parties to Annex I at the time of the adoption of the Protocol. [36] Kazakhstan has no objective but has stated that it wishes to become a Contracting Party to Annex I to the Convention. [38] The Kyoto Protocol is a treaty created by the United Nations in 1997 that aimed to reduce carbon emissions in the world and thus fight against global warming or climate change. The name Kyoto was derived from the city in Japan where the protocol was adopted. The agreement is a protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), which was adopted at the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro and did not establish legally binding emission limits or enforcement mechanisms. Only Parties to the UNFCCC may become Parties to the Kyoto Protocol.

The Kyoto Protocol was adopted at the third meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC (COP 3) in Kyoto, Japan, in 1997. The Protocol was adopted by the UNFCCC COP 3 in Kyoto, Japan, on 11 December 1997. It was opened for signature by the Parties to the UNFCCC on 16 March 1998 for a period of one year, at which time it was signed in Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Maldives, Samoa, Saint Lucia and Switzerland. By the end of the signing period, 82 countries and the European Community had signed. Ratification (which is required to become a party to the Protocol) began on 17 September. ==External links== Countries that have not signed the Convention have acceded to the Convention, which has the same legal effect. [1] The 2015 Doha Amendment extended the Protocol until 2020. However, it became a contentious issue soon after when the Paris Climate Agreement was signed by most of the early ratifyors of the Kyoto Protocol. The United States initially signed the Paris Climate Agreement, but later withdrew from the agreement. The protocol offered countries several opportunities to achieve their objectives. One approach was to use natural processes called «sinks» that remove greenhouse gases from the atmosphere. Planting trees that absorb carbon dioxide from the air would be an example.

Another approach was the international programme called the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), which encouraged developed countries to invest in technology and infrastructure in less developed countries, where there were often significant opportunities to reduce emissions. Under the CDM, the investing country could claim an effective reduction in emissions as a credit to meet its obligations under the Protocol. One example would be an investment in a clean-burning natural gas plant to replace a planned coal-fired power plant. A third approach was emissions trading, which allowed participating countries to buy and sell emission allowances, thus giving economic value to greenhouse gas emissions. European countries have created an emissions trading market as a mechanism to meet their commitments under the Kyoto Protocol. Countries that have not met their emission targets should offset the difference between their targeted and actual emissions, plus a penalty of 30% in the next commitment period from 2012 onwards; They would also be prevented from participating in emissions trading until they are found to be in compliance with the Protocol. Emission targets for post-2012 commitment periods should be set in future protocols. Andorra, Palestine, South Sudan, the United States and, following their withdrawal on December 15, 2012, Canada are the only Parties to the UNFCCC that are not Parties to the Protocol. In addition, the Protocol is not applied to observers of the Holy See of the UNFCCC.

Although the Kingdom of the Netherlands has approved the Protocol for the whole Kingdom, it has not deposited an instrument of ratification for Aruba, Curaçao, Sint Maarten or the Caribbean Netherlands. [110] The Protocol left open several issues that would later be decided by the Sixth COP6 Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC, which attempted to resolve these issues at its meeting in The Hague in late 2000, but was unable to reach an agreement due to disputes between the European Union (which advocated stricter implementation) and the United States-Canada, Japan and Australia (who wanted the deal to be less demanding and more flexible). COP7 was held in Marrakesh from 29 October 2001 to 9 November 2001 to determine the final details of the Protocol. Although the Kyoto Protocol was a diplomatic feat, its success was far from certain. In fact, reports from the first two years after the treaty entered into force suggested that most participants would not meet their emissions targets. However, even if the targets were met, the ultimate environmental benefits would not be significant, according to some critics, as China, the world`s largest emitter of greenhouse gases, and the United States, the world`s second largest emitter, would not be bound by the protocol (China because of its status as a developing country and the United States because it has not ratified the protocol). Other critics claimed that the emission reductions called for in the protocol were too modest to make a demonstrable difference in global temperatures in the decades that followed, even though they were fully achieved with the participation of the United States. At the same time, some developing countries have argued that improving adaptation to climate variability and change is just as important as reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Under IMIS, a Party to the Protocol that expects that the development of its economy will not exhaust its Kyoto quota may sell the surplus of its Kyoto quota units (AAUs) to another Party. The proceeds from AAU sales are expected to become «green», i.e. used for the development and implementation of projects, either in the acquisition of greenhouse gas emission reductions (hard greening) or in the establishment of the necessary framework for this process (soft greening).

[50]:25 «A safer and safer, more prosperous and free world. In December 2015, President Barack Obama imagined that we were leaving today`s children when he announced that the United States, along with nearly 200 other countries, had committed to the Paris Climate Agreement, an ambitious global action plan to combat climate change. .

When Was the Kyoto Protocol Enacted